Ethnobotanicals in the Santa Fe Botanical Garden

Ethnobotany is the scientific study of the relationship between people and plants. New Mexico ethnobotany specifically involves the uses of plants by both the indigenous peoples and the early Spanish settlers in the state. Some of the plants utilized were growing here when the earliest people came to the area and others were brought by those settling at a later date whether they be native Americans or Europeans. Plants in this category are currently or have had various daily uses. The SF Botanical Garden categorizes the various sections in Ojos y Manos as: Food, Wood & Tools, Weaving & Dying and Medical.

The Santa Fe Botanical Garden at Museum Hill currently grows several of these plants. Below is a list of these plants and a description of how they were or are used.


The Orchard Garden

Welcome Garden

Globemallow, Monro's - Sphaeralcea munroana

Juniper, Rocky Mountain - Juniperus sclpulorum

Meadow Garden

Flax, Blue - Linum perenne lewisii

Grass, Little Bluestem - Schizachyrium scoparium

Grass, Sideoats Gramma - Bouteloua curtipendula

Joint Fir, Bluestem (Mormon Tea) - Ephedra equiseina

Mullein - Verbascum thapsus

Oak, Gambel - Quercus gambelii

Pine, Ponderosa - Pinus pondersoa

Above the Orchard Wall

Apache Plume - Fallugia paradoxa

Broom Snakeweed - Gutierrezia sarothrae

Cholla, Cane - Opuntia imbricata

Clover, Sweet - Melilotus officinalis

Juniper, One-seed - Juniperus monasperma

Mountain Mahogany - Cercocarpus spp.

Pinion Pine - Pinus edulis

Privet, New Mexico - Forestiera pubescens

Rabbitbush (Chamisa) - Chrysothammus nauseosus

Sumac, Threeleaf - Rhus trilobata

Yucca, Soapweed - Yucca glauca

Orchard Perennial Borders

Pussytoes, Pink - Antennaria dioica 'Rubra'

Xeric Garden

Beargrass - Nolina microcarpa

Cactus, Prickly Pear - Opuntia spp.


Ojos y Manos

Trees - Evergreen

Juniper, One-seed - Juniperus monasperma

Pine, Pinion - Pinus edulis

Pine, Ponderosa - Pinus pondersoa

Trees - Deciduous

Maple, Bigtooth - Acer saccharum subsp. grandidentatum

Maple, ROCKY MOUNTAIN GLOW - Acer saccharum subsp. grandidentatum 'Schmidt'

Hackberry, Netleaf - Celtis laevigata var. retioculata

Cottonwood, Rio Grande - Populus deltoides subsp. wislizeni

Oak, Texas Red - Quercus buckleyi

Oak, Gambel - Quercus gambelii

Oak, Bur - Quercus marocarpa

Oak, Chikapin - Quercus muehlenbergii

Semi-evergreen Shrubs/Subshrubs

Sagebrush, Threadleaf (Sand) - Artemisia filifolia

Saltbush, Fourwing - Atriplex canescens

Bitterbush, Antelope - Purshia tridentata

Plume, Desert Princes' - Stanleya pinnata

Evergreen Shrubs/Subshrubs

Sagebrush, Big - Artemisia tridentata

Mahogany, Curl-leaf Mountain - Cercocarpus ledifolius

Mahogany, True Mountain - Cercoparpus montanus

Mahonia, Redberry (Holly, Desert) - Mahonia haematocarpa

Penstemon, SILVERTON Bluemat - Penstemon linarioides subsp. coloradoensis 'PO14S'

Penstemon, Pineleaf - Penstemon pinifolius

Penstemon, Bridges' Beard tongue - Penstemon rostriflorus

Penstemon, Sidebells - Penstemon secundiflorus

Globemallow, 'Louis Hamilton' - Sphaeralcea ambigua 'Louis Hamilton'

Ephedra, Green - Ephedra viridis

Deciduous Shrubs/Subshrubs

Buffaloberry, Silver - Shepherdia argentea

Serviceberry, Utah - Amelanchier utahensis

Lead Plant - Amorpha canescens

Rabbitbush (Chamisa) - Chrysothammus nauseosus

Apache Plume - Fallugia paradoxa

Privet, New Mexico - Forestiera pubescens

Four-O'-Clock, Desert - Mirabilis multiflora

Bee-Balm (Mintleaf Bergamont) - Monarda fistulosa var. menthisfolia

Sumac, Threeleaf - Rhus trilobata

Sumac, 'Autumn Amber' (Creeping Sumac) - Rhus trilobata 'Autumn Amber'

Currant, Golden - Ribes aureum

Currant, Wax - Ribes cereum

Mule's Ears - Scabrethia scabra

Fendlerbush, Cliff - Fendlera rupicola

Snakeweed, Broom - Gutierrezia sarothrae

Herbaceous Perennials

Hummingbird Mint (Hyssop) - Agastache cana

Yerba Mansa (Lizard's Tail) - Anemopsis californica

Pricklypoppy, Southwestern - Argemone pleiacantha

Blanketflower - Gaillardia aristata

Flax, Blue - Linum perenne

Primrose, Pale Evening - Oenathera pallida

Penstemon, Scarlet Bugler - Penstemon barbatus

Penstemon, Cardinal - Penstemon cardinalis

Sage, Azure - Salvia azurea

Groundsel, Threadleaf (Manyheaded) - Senecio flaccidus

Tea, Navajo - Thelesperma megapotamicum

Penstemon, Palmer's - Penstemon palmeri

Buckwheat, Sulphur - Eriogonum umbellatum

Beardtongue, Tiger - Penstemon mensarum

Locoweed, Lambert's - Oxytropis lambertii

Evergreen Perennials

Yarrow, Western - Achillea millefolium

Beargrass - Nolina microcarpa

Penstemon, Desert - Penstemon pseudospectabilis

Daisy, Englemann - Englelmannia peristenia

Deciduous Perennials

Daisy, Chocolate - Berlandiera lyrata

Jimsonweed (Sacred Datura) - Datura innoxia

Sunflower, Maximilian - Helianthus maximiliani

Morning Glory, Bush - Ipomoea leptophylla

Primrose, Evening Tufted - Oenothera caespitosa subsp. marginata

Zinnia, Prairie - Zinnia grandiflora

Cacti/Succulents

Yucca, Soapweed - Yucca glauca

Yucca, Banana - Yucca baccata

Yucca, Faxon - Yucca faxoniana

Grasses

Ricegrass, Indian - Oryzopsis hymenoides

Grass, Indian - Sorghastrum nutans


Ojos y Manos Ethnobotanicals
Food
Medicine
Other
Trees - Evergreen
Juniper, One-seed - Juniperus monasperma ******* ********** *********
Pine, Pinion - Pinus edulis ******* ********** *********
Pine, Ponderosa - Pinus pondersoa ******* ********** *********
Trees - Deciduous
Maple, Bigtooth - Acer saccharum subsp. grandidentatum ******* ********** *********
Maple, ROCKY MOUNTAIN GLOW - ******* ********** *********
Acer saccharum subsp. grandidentatum 'Schmidt'
 
Hackberry, Netleaf - Celtis laevigata var. retioculata ******* ********** *********
Cottonwood, Rio Grande - Populus deltoides subsp. wislizeni ******* ********** *********
Oak, Texas Red - Quercus buckleyi ******* ********** *********
Oak, Gambel - Quercus gambelii ******* ********** *********
Oak, Bur - Quercus marocarpa ******* ********** *********
Oak, Chikapin - Quercus muehlenbergii ******* ********** *********
Semi-evergreen Shrubs/Subshrubs
Sagebrush, Sand - Artemisia filifolia ******* ********** *********
Saltbush, Fourwing - Atriplex canescens ******* ********** *********
Bitterbush, Antelope - Purshia tridentata ********** *********
Plume, Desert Princes' - Stanleya pinnata ******* **********
Evergreen Shrubs/Subshrubs
Sagebrush, Big - Artemisia tridentata ******* ********** *********
Mahogany, Curl-leaf Mountain - Cercocarpus ledifolius ********** *********
Mahogany, True Mountain - Cercoparpus montanus ********** *********
Holly, Desert - Mahonia haematocarpa ******* ********** *********
Penstemon, SILVERTON Bluemat - ' **********
Penstemon linarioides subsp. coloradoensis 'PO14S
Penstemon, Pineleaf - Penstemon pinifolius **********
Penstemon, Bridges' Beard tongue - Penstemon rostriflorus **********
Penstemon, Sidebells - Penstemon secundiflorus
Globemallow, 'Louis Hamilton' - ******* ********** *********
Sphaeralcea ambigua 'Louis Hamilton'
Deciduous Shrubs/Subshrubs
Serviceberry, Utah - Amelanchier utahensis ******* ********** *********
Lead Plant - Amorpha canescens ******* ********** *********
Rabbitbush (Chamisa) - Chrysothammus nauseosus ******* ********** *********
Apache Plume - Fallugia paradoxa ********** *********
Privet, New Mexico - Forestiera pubescens ******* ********** *********
Four-O'-Clock, Desert - Mirabilis multiflora ******* **********
Bee-Balm (Mintleaf Bergamont) - ******* ********** *********
Monarda fistulosa var. menthisfolia
Sumac, Threeleaf - Rhus trilobata ******* ********** *********
Sumac, 'Autumn Amber' (Creeping Sumac) - ******* ********** *********
Rhus trilobata 'Autumn Amber'
Currant, Golden - Ribes aureum ******* ********** *********
Currant, Wax - Ribes cereum ******* ********** *********
Mule's Ears - Scabrethia scabra
Herbaceous Perennials
Hummingbird Mint (Hyssop) - Agastache cana ******* ***********
Yerba Mansa - Anemopsis californica ******* **********
Pricklypoppy, Southwestern - Argemone pleiacantha ********** *********
Blanketflower - Gaillardia aristata ******* ********** *********
Flax, Blue - Linum perenne ******* ********** *********
Primrose, Pale Evening - Oenathera pallida **********
Penstemon, Scarlet Bugler - Penstemon barbatus **********
Penstemon, Cardinal - Penstemon cardinalis
Sage, Azure - Salvia azurea
Groundsel,Threadleaf - Senecio flaccidus ********** *********
Tea, Navajo - Thelesperma megapotamicum ******* ********** *********
Evergreen Perennials
Yarrow, Western - Achillea millefolium ******* ********** *********
Beargrass - Nolina microcarpa ******* ********** *********
Deciduous Perennials
Daisy, Chocolate - Berlandiera lyrata ******* **********
Jimsonweed (Sacred Datura) - Datura innoxia ********** *********
Sunflower, Maximilian - Helianthus maximiliani *******
Morning Glory, Bush - Ipomoea leptophylla ******* ********** *********
Primrose, Evening Tufted - **********
Oenothera caespitosa subsp. marginata
Zinnia, Prairie - Zinnia grandiflora ********** *********
Cacti/Succulents
Yucca, Soapweed - Yucca glauca ******* ********** *********
Yucca, Banana - Yucca baccata ******* ********** *********
Yucca, Faxon - Yucca faxoniana ******* ********** *********
Grasses
Ricegrass, Indian - Oryzopsis hymenoides ******** **********
Grass, Indian - Sorghastrum nutans ********** *********

Other Common Ethnobotanicals in New Mexico Not in the Garden

>Daisy, Whiplash - Erigeron flagellaris >Groundcherry - Physalis spp.
Amaranth - Amaranthus spp.  
Aster, Hairy Golden - Chrysopsis villosa
Aster, Purplestem - Symphyotrichum puniceum  
Aster, Sand - Chaetopappa ericoides
Beeplant, Rocky Mountain - Cleome serrulata
Bindweed - Convolulus arvensis
Black-eyed Susan - Rudbeckia hirta
Buffalo Gourd - Curcurbita foetidissima
Burdock - Arctium spp.
Chokecherry - Prunus virginiana
Daisy, Paper - Psilostrophe tagetina
Daisy, Spreading Fleabane - Erigeron divergens
Dandelion - Taraxacum officinale
Dock - Rumex spp.
Goldenrod - Solidago spp.
Golden Smoke/Scrambled Eggs - Corydalis aurea  
Goosefoot (Lamb's-Quarter) - Chenopodium spp.
Gumweed - Grindelia spp.
Horse-Nettle - Solanum elaeagnifolium
Horseweed (Mare's Tail) - Conyza canadensis
Hymenopappus, Fineleaf - Hymenopappus fillifolius  
Indian Paintbrush - Castilleja integra
Locust, New Mexico - Robinia neomexicana
Milkweed - Asclepias spp.
Mustard, Plains Slimleaf - Schoenocrambe linear
Mustard, Western Tansy - Descurainia pinnata
Paintbrush, Indian - Castilleja integra
Penstemon, James - Penstemon jamesii
Pepperweed - Lepidium virginicum
Plum, Wild - Prunus americana
Plantain - Plantago major
Primrose, White Evening - Oenathera albicaulis
Purslane - Portulaca oleracea
Raspberry - Rubus spp.
Rose, Wild - Rosa spp.
Russian Thistle, Prickly - Salsola tragus
Salsify - Tragopogon dubius
Scorpionweed - Phacelia spp.
Storks's-bill, Common - Erodium cicutarium
Sunflower, Annual - Helianthus annuus
Velvetweed - Gaura mollis
Wolfberry - Lycium pallidum
Yarrow, Golden - Eriophyllum confertiflorum